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It has been hypothesized that we have obtained the current living forms via repetitive cycles of random mutagenesis and natural selection, called Darwinian evolution. Nowadays, we can evolve biomolecules such as proteins in the laboratory in a much shorter time scale. Such "directed evolution" is a most powerful way to obtain biomolecules with a user-defined function, three pioneer of the filed awarded Nobel prize in Chemistry in 2018. We employ this technology to customize our protein cages as well as developing our own evolutionary engineering method based on protein cage-based compartmentalization in living cells.

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